Due to the lack of a regular reading habit, many students are unable to score marks in the English section. PracticeMock is here to help such students gain mastery over the verbal section through a holistic approach. It is important that you understand the difference between the literal and contextual meanings of words. With this article, we aim to enrich your vocabulary for upcoming SBI PO, FCI 2019, CWC 2019 exams. Typically, we pick passages that span a variety of topics, ranging from economics to environmental science from prominent newspapers such as The Hindu, Economic Times, etc, and provide the meanings of all the difficult words/ phrases used in the passage.
The Islamic State, which at its peak (climax;उत्कर्ष)controlled territories straddling (extending across;फैला हुआ)the Iraq-Syria border of the size of Great Britain, is now fighting for half a square kilometre in eastern Syria. The Syrian Democratic Forces, the Kurdish-led rebel group assisted (helped;मदद की) by the U.S., has effectively laid siege (attacked;हमला किया) to Baghouz, the eastern Syrian village where about 500 IS jihadists along with 4,000 women and children are caught. When the IS lost bigger cities such as Raqqa and Deir Ezzor in eastern Syria, militants (aggressors;हमलावर)moved to Baghouz and the deserts in the south. After the SDF moved to Baghouz, several civilians fled (escaped from;पलायन) the village. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimates that nearly 59,000 people have left IS-held territory since December, and at least 4,000 jihadists have surrendered (accepted defeat; हार मान ली) since February. Both President Donald Trump and the SDF commanders say victory against the IS is imminent (certain;निश्चित). Victory in Baghouz will also mean the IS’s territorial caliphate is shattered (destroyed;नष्ट/तबाह). Since the battle for Kobane in 2015, which marked the beginning of the end of the IS, Syrian Kurdish rebels have been in the forefront (the most important position;सबसे महत्वपूर्ण स्थान) of the war. Naturally, the SDF would claim (assert that one has achieved;दावा करना) the final victory against the IS.
However, the liberation (the act of setting free,मुक्ति) of Baghouz or the destruction (the act of destroying;विनाश) of the territorial caliphate does not necessarily mean that the IS has been defeated. It is basically an insurgent (revolutionary;क्रांतिकारी) jihadist group. It has established cells, especially in Syria and Iraq, which have continued to carry out terror attacks even as IS territories kept shrinking (becoming smaller;छोटा होना). The group has a presence in Syria’s vast deserts, a tactic (strategy;रणनीति) its predecessor (forerunner;किसीपद/स्थितिमेंपहलेरहचुकाहै), al-Qaeda in Iraq, successfully used when it was in decline (losing power;शक्तिखोना) during 2006-2011 after its leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi was killed by the U.S. When the Syrian civil war broke out, the remnants (the small number left;शेषहै) of AQI found an opportunity for revival (the act of becoming strong again,पुनरुत्थान) and rebranded (changed their name;उनका नाम बदल दिया) themselves as the Jabhat al-Nusra, al-Qaeda’s branch in Syria. The IS was born when al-Nusra split. The U.S., the Kurdish rebels, the Syrian government and other stakeholders (a person with an interest in something;हितधारकों)in the region should be mindful (aware;संकल्पलेना) of the geopolitical and sectarian minefields (a situation presenting unseen hazards;एक भयावह स्थिति) that groups such as the IS could exploit (make use of;उपयोगकरना) for their re-emergence. Mr. Trump has already announced the withdrawal (retreat;स्थान छोड़ना) of U.S. troops from Syria. The Turkish government of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is wary (careful;सावधान) of the rapid rise of the Syrian Kurds, who are organisationally and ideologically aligned (similar to;समान रूप से) with Kurdish rebels on the Turkish side. The Syrian regime, on its part, has vowed (pledged;संकल्प) to re-establish its authority over the Kurdish autonomous (independent;स्वतंत्र) region in the northeast. If Turkey and Syria attack Kurdish rebels, who were vital (significant;महत्वपूर्ण)in the battle against the IS, that would throw northeastern Syria into chaos (conflict;संघर्ष)again, which would suit the jihadists. To avoid this, there must be an orderly (well planned;सुनियोजित) U.S. withdrawal and a political solution to the Syrian civil war.
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